After losing its complete political identity in 1568 following the defeat and demise of the last Hindu king Mukunda Dev, efforts resulted into the formation of a politically separate state under British rule on linguistic basis on April 1, 1936.
The main revolution for the separate state was continued for three decades from the very day of formation of Utkal Sammilani that lead the foundation of a separate Odisha Province. The movement was more intensed with the leadership of Utkala Gouraba Madhusudan Das, Utkala mani Gopabandhu Das, Maharaja Krushna Chandra Gajapati, Pandita Nilakantha Das, Fakir Mohan Senapati, Gangadhar Meher, Basudeba Sudhaladeba, Radhanath Ray, Bhubanananda Das, A. P. Patro and many others with the support of the public.
The newly formed Odisha consisted of six districts namely Cutack, Puri, Baleswar, Sambalpur, Koraput and Ganjam having its capital at Cuttack. John Austin Hubback took oath of office and became the first Governor of Odisha Province.
In 1948 and 1949 the area of Orissa was almost doubled and the population was increased by a third with the addition of 24 former princely states. In 1950, Orissa became a constituent state of India.
Later on the State was divided into 13 districts and then 30 districts.